All young people have a right to stay in education or training until their 18th birthday.
We have a duty to encourage, enable and help young people in suitable education and training, specifically if:
- they are 16 to 18 years old
- they have an EHC plan
- they're aged between 20 and 25 with SEND and need extra support
The government recognises that there will always be a small number of young people who, for medical reasons need either a temporary or longer break from education or training. This includes young people who have:
- mental health issues
- a serious short or long term illness
- some disabilities
A young person over 16 can:
- study full time in a school, college or training provider
- spend 20 hours a week volunteering, while in part time education or learning
- start an apprenticeship or traineeship
Your child's school, college or post 16 provider:
- will help them to understand their options for the future
- has a duty to provide independent careers guidance when they're in years 8 to 13
Details about schools' statutory duty to provide careers guidance is available on GOV.UK.
If your child has an EHC plan
If your child has an EHC plan, they will be given help to think about their plans for the future in their annual reviews. This will normally start in their year nine review meeting.
Transition support is individual for each young person and is in the appropriate section of the EHC plan.
Your child's school will work with further education providers to help make sure the move to further education is smooth. Transition can, and often will, go well into the first six weeks of your child's first term with their further education provider.
Full time further education (FE)
Further education is education for young people, usually between the ages of 16 and 19. It includes school sixth forms, sixth form colleges and further education colleges.
Find out Where to get post 16 education in Bristol and how to apply.
Special schools and colleges for people aged 16 and older
If your child has an EHC plan, they might want to go to a specialist college. The council doesn't always agree to name a specialist college if they feel their local provision is suitable. But if an independent specialist college is named on their EHC plan the council must provide and fund it.
As part of the SEND Code of Practice, the council has to consult with the preferred provider of the young person and their parents, and with the local provider.
The Bristol post-16 directory includes a list of specialist colleges.
GOV.UK has an approved list of independent specialist providers of further education for young people with SEND.
Supported internships, traineeships and apprenticeships
If your child doesn't want to stay in full time education, they can do:
These courses are for free 16 to 18 year old students and are an individual programmes to help young people with the highest support needs.
If your child is over 19 years old and doesn't have an EHC plan, they can pay for it as an adult course. If your child is over 19 years old and has an EHC plan it's free, but the council needs to agree this.
They offer life skills with high care support as needed.
Most students on these course will previously have been in special schools.
Courses will often last three years and aim to maximise students' independence.
Entry level one
A high level of support is provided on Entry level 1 courses. Most students will previously have been to special schools.
Courses often last three years and students are aiming at independent living.
Entry level two
These courses may offer life skills, but students will often begin vocational training in general or specific courses. Life skills may be offered at this level for those aiming towards independent living.
Many students at this level will be aiming towards employment and so can go on vocational courses.
Entry level three
These courses will usually be vocational. Some will include elements of supported employment. As with entry level two, they may be general or more job specific.
Level one and above
All other qualifications fit into a national framework that go from Level one, which includes GCSE at grades D to G, to postgraduate study at Levels seven and eight. They can be academic or vocational.
The post 16 participation website also explains different levels of qualifications.
What qualifications your child needs to get on a further education course
Achieving a qualification in Maths and English is needed in most cases, but check the things your child must have for the course they're interested in.
If your child doesn't have a grade C or four at GCSE or a Level two functional skills in English and Maths at the end of Year 11, there are courses available in further education colleges to help them carry on learning in these subjects.
The Preparing for adulthood website has more information about what qualifications students need for different types of study.
It may help your child to choose where to go and what to study through:
- discussions with the SENCOs at each provider about their needs
- special school and mainstream school visits to find out what they offer
- taster sessions, open days and open evenings at local sixth forms and colleges
- reading a sixth form or college's inspection reports by Ofsted
- sixth form and college prospectuses, which provide information about courses
- using the Natspec Specialist College Directory and College Finder
Colleges have similar responsibilities to schools to provide reasonable support to young people with special educational needs, including when they don't have an EHC plan. For example:
- access to a specialist teacher
- independence and life skills
- making technology accessible by adapting it
- exam access arrangements if needed
- supporting pupils with emotional, social and mental health needs
GOV.UK has guidance about the support that must be available to young adults with SEND.
If your child has an EHC plan, it'll stay with them until whichever of the following happens first:
- they go into paid employment
- they go into higher education (university or a further education college offering degrees)
- they reach age 18 and no longer want to continue in education
They will continue to have annual reviews to make sure the support is appropriate, effective and they're achieving their learning outcomes.
Most universities and colleges have disability coordinators or advisers. They can tell you and your child what support is available and help to set up a visit.
Telling the institution about your child's SEN or disability in advance can help them arrange support in time for the start of the course.
Under the equality act, it's unlawful for universities to discriminate against disabled students. They must make 'reasonable adjustments' so your child isn't disadvantaged.
Students who go to university aren't eligible for an EHC plan, so if your child has one it'll end when they start their course. You should still send the EHC plan to the university because it will help the university understand their needs.
Your child can apply for a grant called the Disabled Students' Allowance (DSA) if they have a:
- long-term health condition
- mental health condition
- specific learning disability such as dyslexia
Support for a young person under 18 who's left education, but isn't in education, employment or training
There are targeted youth support services that can support your child to work towards education, training and employment opportunities.
To refer a young person to these services:
Find out about:
- help with travel costs to and from education settings
- funding for young people studying a further education course without an EHC plan on GOV.UK
16 to 19 bursary fund
A bursary is money that a young person, or their education or training provider, can use to pay for things like:
- clothing, books and other equipment for their course
- transport and lunch on days they study or train
Your child could get a bursary to help with educated-related costs if they're:
- aged 16 to 19 and are either:
- studying at school or college (not university) in England
- on a training course, including unpaid apprenticeships
- 19 or over and have an EHC plan
Find out about the 16 to 19 Bursary Fund on GOV.UK.
In the last year of formal education, your child needs to make decisions about continuing learning or finding a job.
Young people don't have an automatic right to stay on in education after they're 19, but there are options and in some cases they may be able to continue learning until they're 25.
If your child has done A-levels or equivalent qualifications at sixth form or college, they may want to move onto higher education at 18 or later.
Higher education is provided by universities and further education colleges that provide degrees, Higher National Diplomas (HND), higher level NVQs and Foundation degrees.
Your child can look for courses and apply on the UCAS website. Their school, college or sixth form careers advisor can provide information about how to apply.
UCAS has information about applying to university, including for students with special educational needs and disabilities.
There are also other higher education options available, such as distance learning on the internet or by post.